In his paper "Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety," Freud states that "it was anxiety which produced repression and not, as I formerly believed, repression which produced anxiety.
The experiment successfully demonstrated the behaviorist concept of association in a higher order animal. The beliefs of each theory may contradict each other yet, as Richards and Bergin state: Once again he cried.
On the other hand, Albert did show fear and cried when these two men clanged metal with a hammer just behind his head. Since he was not afraid, he tried to touch the rat.
Anxiety rises in order to respond to various situations during life and, although pharmaceuticals may improve resulting symptoms, they may do nothing to deal with life circumstances or their internal relationships that have led to the state of anxiety. In many cases, two or more of these drives can diverge, such as an exhausted starved person is conflicted between sleeping and eating.
From a psychodynamic perspective, the goal of therapy is not necessarily to eliminate all anxiety, but rather to increase anxiety tolerance, that is, Compare and contrast psychoanalytic capacity to experience anxiety and use it as a signal to investigate the underlying conflict that has created it" p.
However, in tohe conducted his most well-known experiment with an eight-month-old baby known as Albert B. Watson and his assistant gave Albert a white lab rat.
Watson warned his readers that they would not find any discussions about consciousness. Behaviorists strongly believe in the importance of establishing all methodology on scientific research.
In it Freud once again looks at the relationship of sexuality and anxiety. Yet, a person is not always conscious of the cause of the underlying anxiety. Although behaviorism has changed considerably over the decades since these early studies by Watson, behaviorists continue to believe that understanding of behavior can be attained without an understanding of consciousness; the emphasis is on behavior that is automatic and involuntary and therefore independent of consciousness.
Rather than anxiety being the outcome of unsatisfactory sexual repression, as he once theorized, it comes first and foremost as a sign of danger. Later, this idea was redefined as a signal of the presence of danger in the unconscious.
During the early s, it was not only Freud who was looking at the way that humans were psychologically responding to their environment. Behaviorists frequently reject or do not place a stress on the dualistic clarifications of mind or consciousness.
However, beyond these basics, each of these theories, or general propositions used as principles of explanation, consists of its own beliefs about how people are innately developed and influenced by their environment, how they grow and what comprises preferable ways of functioning, how they change and the ways that counseling can facilitate this change.
Despite their differences, all of these theories have both conceptual and practical usefulness in treating anxiety disorders that have been, and continue to be, so prevalent in the rapidly changing modern-day Western society.
Before long, just the sight of the rat made Albert cry and try to crawl away.
They limit their psychological methodology to what can be observed; thinking is also a form of overt behavior, somewhat subtle, but yet observed from the outside.
A few months later, Watson and his assistant again gave Albert the rat, but this time just as he touched it, the metal clang sounded behind his head.
Contemporary therapists emphasize attachment needs rather than instinctual drives, but they continue to emphasize the inadequate child-parent relationships that form during the early years. Classical Freudians believe that humans are essentially pleasure-seeking individuals who are controlled by sexual and aggressive desires.
Until Watson observed infant humans, he had compared animals and humans, but did not experiment with them. That which gives warning is a threat from within and without -- instincts lead to internal dangers and prohibitions against them mean external dangers.
In the psychoanalytic approach, anxiety is viewed as the result of psychic conflict between unconscious sexual or destructive desires and corresponding threats that come from the superego or external reality.
This experiment was repeated several times over the next several weeks. Thus, a person can range from harmony to profound conflict, which can be as threatening as actual external danger and result in the emotion of anxiety in the person who is involved. The study of the consciousness, was incompatible with behaviorism Weiten, He argued that psychologists can research anything that humans say or do, such as playing, sleeping and shopping, but it is not possible to scientifically study their inner thoughts, desires and feelings that accompany these observable actions.
In fact, the fear and crying was extended to all fuzzy items, including a stuffed toy, a fur coat, and even a Santa Claus mask.Oct 26, · Compare and Contrast Theories essay. Human beings are rather complex and versatile. On the one hand we have a lot of natural instincts, in the same way like animals; on the other hand, we are sufficiently different from them thanks to our rich inside world.2/5(1).
Compare And Contrast The Psychoanalytic Theories Of Freud Jung And Adler. Freud and Jung: Early Psychoanalytic Theories Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung were two influential theorists in psychology (Nystul, M., ).
Freud was considered the father of psychology and believed that human behavior was the result of unconscious conflict deep in the mind of individuals (Nystul, M., ).
Compare and contrast person centered and cognitive behavioural approaches understanding and making use of the counseling relationship Introduction This assignment is an attempt to discuss two different types of therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy and person centered therapy and highlight some important similarities and differences between them.
Compare and Contrast Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, and Behavioral Therapy Essay Sample. Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, and Behavioral are all psychotherapy which are techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life for every patients.
Start studying Compare and Contrast - Humanistic and Psychoanalytic. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Psychology Models Since Sigmund Freud first introduced his psychoanalytic theory, numerous other theoretical models of psychopathology have been suggested with certain similarities and differences.Download